They tend to conform to the wishes of those people whose friendship and companionship they value. What actually happens is that man swings from one set or properties to the other with changes in his mood and motives in changing .environment. The motivations are only one class of determinants of behavior. Despite Alibaba's wide-ranging investments, its core business remains centered on e-commerce; the firm's business model has combined elements of many of the leading technology companies in the US rather than mirroring any one business in particular. According to Herzberg, today’s motivators are tomorrow’s hygiene because the latter stop influencing the behaviour of persons when they get them. Launched in November 2007, Alimama is an online marketing platform that provides sellers on Alibaba Group's marketplaces a range of marketing and advertising services. 8. Alibaba Group has made major investments in Sina Weibo, a Chinese microblogging website similar to Twitter Inc. (TWTR), and Youku Tudou, China's answer to YouTube. In addition to its leading e-commerce portals, Alibaba Group created an ecosystem of companies to complement them: Alipay is an online third-party payment platform, launched in 2004 by Alibaba Group. There are three main elements in this model. BATX stocks refer to the stocks of four of the Chinese technology giants: Baidu, Alibaba, Tencent, and Xiaomi. Alibaba Group spun off Alipay in 2010. The effort-performance-reward-satisfaction should be made integral to the entire system of managing men in organisation. McGregor’s Participation Theory 5. The expectancy theory does not describe individual and situational differences. Unlike Amazon, Alibaba Group holds no inventory and owns no warehouses. In the literature, these three needs are abbreviated “n Ach”, “n Pow”, and “n Aff” respectively’. The theory acknowledges that if higher levels remain unfulfilled, there may be a regression to lower level needs in what is known as frustration-regression principle. Incentive Theory of Motivation . Rewards may be of two kinds—intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Early and modern theories of motivation allow a manager to find the reasons for people’s actions, desires, and needs. However the amount of performance is determined by the amount of labour and the ability and role perception of the employee. The other side of the need hierarchy is that human needs are unlimited. There are many theories of motivation, and they mostly give a relation or influence the outcomes of employee job satisfaction. The Two-Factor Theory of motivation (otherwise known as dual-factor theory or motivation-hygiene theory) was developed by psychologist Frederick Herzberg in the 1950s. The incentive theory suggests that people are motivated to do things because of external rewards. The needs may or may not follow a definite hierarchical order. 3. People with a high need for power are people who like to be in control of people and events. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory 8. While Alibaba.com is business-to-business, Taobao is business-to-consumer or consumer-to-consumer focused, enabling small businesses and individuals to open online stores. Investopedia uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. About 20% of these are Water Bottles. The level of satisfaction depends upon the amount of rewards one achieves. High-need achievers have a strong desire to assume personal responsibility for performing a task for finding a solution to a problem. However, inability to fulfill these needs results in feeling like inferiority, weakness and helplessness. Taylor’s Scientific Management attempts to find the most efficient way of performing any job. China Smart Logistics is a proprietary platform that provides real-time access to information for both buyers and sellers with a view to improving the efficiency of e-commerce package deliveries. However, Vroom’s expectancy theory has its critics. If any one of the variables approaches to zero level, the possibility of the so motivated performance also touches zero level. In order to make individuals grow mature, he proposes gradual shift from the existing pyramidal organisation structure to humanistic system; from existing management system to the more flexible and participative management. While Taobao caters more to small merchants and individuals as sellers, Tmall is focused on larger companies, including multinational brands such as Nike (NKE) and Apple (AAPL). 2. 4. Performance leads to satisfaction. Because of its ubiquitous nature, salary commonly shows up as a motivator as well as hygine. Maslow identified five levels in his need hierarchy as shown in figure 17.2. Tmall.com is a marketplace geared towards China's middle class, focused on large, multinational brands. They recommended that the managers should carefully reassess their reward system and structure. 3. Tmall.com, which launched in 2008, offers a wide selection of branded products oriented towards China's growing middle class. 4. What McGregor tried to dramatise through his theory X and Y is to outline the extremes to draw the fencing within which the organisational man is usually seen to behave. People generally tend to take credit themselves when things go well. By … The assumption that people are rational and calculating makes the theory idealistic. High-need achievers tend to set moderately difficult goals and take calculated risks. Consequently, shoppers must go directly to Taobao and Tmall in order to see what they have to offer. Disclaimer 9. 4. Theories of Motivation Definition: There are several Theories of Motivation that are developed to explain the concept of “Motivation”. Through his research, McClelland identified the following three characteristics of high-need achievers: 1. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory 2. Motivation theories also explain how to influence one’s direction to behavior that allows controlling and guiding employees’ actions. David McClelland is one of the most cited psychologists of the 20th century thanks to ideas like his Acquired Needs Theory of Motivation. The number of active users Alibaba has reported, as of June 2019. The motivation is a drive that forces an individual to work in a certain way. April 8, 2009. Copyright 10. The responses when analysed were found quite interesting and fairly consistent. One of the most interesting elements of Alibaba's business strategy lies in its relationship with Baidu, which operates China's leading search engine. They include such needs which indicate self-confidence, achievement, competence, knowledge and independence. After satisfying the physiological needs, the next needs felt are called safety and security needs. One researcher came to the conclusion that theories that are intuitively strong die hard’. Meeting these needs requires more money and, hence, the individual is prompted to work more. Prohibited Content 3. In fact motivation itself is not a simple cause-effect relationship rather it is a complex phenomenon Porter and Lawler have attempted to measure variables such as the values of possible rewards, the perception of effort-rewards probabilities and role perceptions in deriving satisfaction. These needs are to be met first at least partly before higher level needs emerge. Motivation theories are used to understand, explain, and influence human behavior. In other words, need for achievement is a behaviour directed toward competition with a standard of excellence. Urwick’s Theory Z 6. Some of the most important theories of motivation are as follows: 1. A desire to exercise control over others. The theory is founded on the basic notions that people will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when they believe there are relationships between the effort they put forth, the performance they achieve, and the outcomes/ rewards they receive. Man is a social being. Die Bezeichnung Motivation ist auf das lateinische Verb movere (bewegen, antreiben) zurückzuführen. Privacy Policy 8. But the valence or value people place on various rewards varies. This can be attributed to the theory’s intuitive logic and easy to understand. Taobao.com is more similar to eBay or Amazon, connecting international businesses to consumers—or consumers to consumers. The two propositions in Urwicks’s theory are that: (i) Each individual should know the organisational goals precisely and the amount of contribution through his efforts towards these goals. 1. The need for affiliation is defined as a desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with other people’. Motivation theories (Source: Author's own figure) Maslow – hierarchy of needs. They posit that motivation does not equal satisfaction or performance. Hence, Maslow’s preposition that one need is satisfied at one time is also of doubtful validity. The main use of his recommendations lies in planning and controlling of employees work. In fact, Porter and Lawler’s theory is an improvement over Vroom’s expectancy theory. Merchants have the option to buy advertising and other services to help them stand out on the website and boost sales. Porter and Lawler’s Expectancy Theory. This theory neglects situational variable to motivate an individual. These needs are basic to human life and, hence, include food, clothing, shelter, air, water and necessities of life. It is a business-to-business trading platform, connecting manufacturers from countries such as China, India, Pakistan, the United States, and Thailand with international buyers. 2. Notwithstanding, Maslow’s need hierarchy theory has received wide recognition, particularly among practicing managers. The company's businesses account for more than half of all e-commerce sales in China. Ultimately, performance leads to satisfaction,. 2. 2. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. McClelland developed his theory based on Henry Murray’s developed long list of motives and manifest needs used in his early studies of personality. Examples of intrinsic rewards are such as sense of accomplishment and self-actualisation. When a customer does a search on Taobao and Tmall, ads from merchants appear alongside search results. Alibaba actually blocks Baidu's spider from indexing both Taobao and Tmall, meaning that pages from these websites do not appear in Baidu's search results. Posted by abhishekbm003 April 30, 2020 Posted in failure, motivation, success Tags: alibaba, failure, jack ma, motivation, success Leave a comment on Jack Ma: Failures, Rejections and….. So to say, there may be overlapping in need hierarchy. Like physiological needs, these become inactive once they are satisfied. The same is depicted in the following Fig 17.4. Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological need that The site charges merchants a percentage of sales and goes up against eBay, Amazon, and Etsy (ETSY) on their own territory. It provides payments and escrow services for transactions on Alibaba Group platforms. He states that such situation will satisfy not only their physiological and safety needs, but also will motivate them to make ready to make more use of their physiological and safety needs. 2. A wide variety of motivation options are available to you, such as drinkware type, metal type, and feature. That is, they like to work as little as possible. These needs relate to the survival and maintenance of human life. The need priority model may not apply at all times in all places. In all enterprises whether private or state owned, motivation plays a key role in driving employees towards achieving their goals, organizational goals and to a certain extent the dreams of their nations. The need for power is concerned with making an impact on others, the desire to influence others, the urge to change people, and the desire to make a difference in life. (ii) Perception of effort-reward probability. Taobao doesn't charge transaction fees and the site is free to join for merchants, a policy which helped the site gain its enormous user base in China. Once that level is fulfilled the next level up is what motivates us, and so on. They exert tremendous influence on human behaviour. High-need achievers have a strong desire for performance feedback. It is probably safe to say that the most well-known theory of motivation is Maslow’s need hierarchy theory Maslow’s theory is based on the human needs. Your highest level of motivation will be to do the things that better you as a person—called “self-actualization.” [3] Gelegentlich wird als Synonym für Motivation auch das Wort Impetus verwendet. Managers usually strive to find ways to motivate their staff. He believes in the existence of a dual continuum. In Chinese, Taobao means “search for treasure.” Taobao.com has grown to become China's largest shopping website and is ranked the ninth most popular website in the world by Alexa.com. The need for affiliation, in many ways, is similar to Maslow’s social needs. From the very beginning, when the human organisations were established, various thinkers have tried to find out the answer to what motivates people to work. These ads are the primary means through which Alibaba makes money from Taobao. Accordingly, one’s hygiene may be the motivator of another. The fulfillment of esteem needs leads to self-confidence, strength and capability of being useful in the organisation. Researches show that man’s behaviour at any time is mostly guided by multiplicity of behaviour. It is the fact that organization’s ideas and strategic concept will fail down in a short time period when people are not getting agree with the organization’s strategy and key objectives. The psychologist Frederick Herzberg extended the work of Maslow and propsed a new motivation theory popularly known as Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene (Two-Factor) Theory. According to Mitchell (1982), there are four main characteristic of motivation and they include the following. MOTIVATION & ITS THEORIES Welcome to today’s lesson on motivation. ADVERTISEMENTS: Some of the most important theories of motivation are as follows: 1. McGregor’s Participation Theory 5. Merchants can list their products for free on Alibaba.com but also have the option to pay for a range of benefits such as greater exposure on the site and unlimited product listings. The main criticisms of the theory include the following: 1. You can leverage this theory to help you get the best performance from your team.The two factors identified by Herzberg are Douglas McGregor formulated two distinct views of human being based on participation of workers. According to Maslow, the human needs follow a definite sequence of domination. People are capable of directing their own behaviour. To help shoppers choose among the vast number of merchants, the site has a unique rating system that reflects how many transactions each seller has successfully completed. A fair degree of research support that, the intrinsic rewards are much more likely to produce attitudes about satisfaction that are related to performance. Alibaba Group is a Chinese e-commerce platform represented by three businesses: Alibaba, Taobao, and Tmall. Internal Motivation Theories. Aliyun develops platforms for cloud computing and data management, ensuring that Alibaba's e-commerce portals can handle its massive traffic and transaction volumes. Click and mortar is a type of business model that has both online and offline operations, which typically include a website and a physical store. For example, you might be motivated to go to work each day for the monetary reward of being paid. Motivated employees are more productive and creative than those who are unmotivated. The first basically negative, labeled Theory X, and the other basically positive, labled Theory Y. Alibaba.com is a business-to-business website, connecting manufacturers from a variety of countries with buyers around the world. Three Needs Motivation Theory. McClelland’s Need Theory 4. FEATURES OF MOTIVATION. Alibaba recorded $30.8 billion worth of orders on November 13, 2018, the Chinese equivalent of Black Friday called "Singles Day" or "11.11." The underlying reason, he says, is that removal of dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. Every person is unique and the major theories of motivation allow this uniqueness to be demonstrated in one way or the other (Mullins 2002). Image Guidelines 5. Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory. Arbeit Motivation modell Hersteller und Anbieter Verzeichnis auf Alibaba.com – Hier Infos zu Arbeit Motivation modell und Arbeit Motivation modell Hersteller vergleichen für Ihren Geschäftsbedarf 13. [4] Thus, Vroom’s motivation can also be expressed in the form of an equation as follows: Motivation = Valence x Expectancy x Instrumentality. The fact remains that no organisational man would actually belong either to theory X or theory Y. Maslow refers to higher- lower order needs, whereas Herzberg refers to motivation and hygiene factors. 3. Regardless of criticism, Herzberg’s ‘two-factor motivation theory’ has been widely read and a few managers seem untaminar with his recommendations. In spite of all these critics, the greatest point in me expectancy theory is that it explains why significant segment of workforce exerts low levels of efforts in carrying out job responsibilities. The people with high need for affiliation have these characteristics: 1. In case of some people, the level of motivation may be permanently lower. 3. 2. The theories of motivation are broadly classified into two as content, and process: 1. The relationships between notions of effort, performance, and reward are depicted in Figure 17.3. The company accounts for a reported 58% of all online retail sales in China. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Different approaches applied by them have resulted in a number of theories concerning motivation. Porter and Lawler’s Expectancy Theory. Urwick’s Theory Z 6. For example, a person suffering from chronic unemployment may remain satisfied for the rest of his life if only he/she can get enough food. We have appreciated earlier the importance of motivation in determining human behaviour . Employee Participation and Involvement. In Urwick’s view, the above two make people ready to behave positively to accomplish both organisational and individual goals. As of June 2019, the company has 755 million active users, larger than the entire population of the United States. Maslow is considered the father of needs based motivation theory and his theory is “one of the best-known and most widely cited works on motivation” (Denhardt et al., 2008, p. 148). He believed that there were universal laws which governed efficiency and that these laws were independent of human judgment. But also will motivate them to make ready to make more use of their potential in accomplishing organisational goals. Motivation is the core for human being’s aspirations and achievements. His theory focuses on Murray’s three needs; achievement, power and affiliation. The chart shows the parallel relationship between the needs in each of the theories. Alibaba.com was launched in 1999 in Hangzhou by Jack Ma, a former English teacher, along with a group of 17 friends. Sellers on Tmall have access to analytic tools showing the number of visitors, page views, and customer ratings, which serve to help guide their business decisions. He did not value the human needs of workers. This is the earliest and most widely known theory of motivation, developed by Abraham Maslow (1943) in the 1940s and 1950s. Much after the propositions of theories X and Y by McGregor, the three theorists Urwick, Rangnekar, and Ouchi-propounded the third theory lebeled as Z theory. 11 Main hosts thousands of merchants selling products in a variety of categories. Once physiological needs are satisfied, they no longer motivate the man. In today’s module we will review the concept of motivation and various theories of motivation. Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation tries to get to the root of motivation in the workplace. Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene Theory 3. McClelland’s need-theory is closely associated with learning theory, because he believed that needs are learned or acquired by the kinds of events people experienced in their environment and culture. McClelland found that people with a high need for achievement perform better than those with a moderate or low need for achievement, and noted regional / national differences in achievement motivation. In other words, personality of individual develops. This, in turn, increases the value of search on Taobao and Tmall. Reported good feelings were generally associated with job satisfaction, whereas bad feeling with job dissatisfaction. Thus, motivation is crucial to succeed in educational matters and without the fighting spirit nothing is possible not only in education but also in real life. Strong Bond between Organisation and Employees, 2. Herzberg labelled the job satisfiers motivators, and he called job dissatisfies hygiene or maintenance factors. SSRN eLibrary. These needs refer to self-esteem and self-respect. He asked these people to describe two important incidents at their jobs: (1) When did you feel particularly good about your job, and. In 2014, Alibaba launched the US shopping website 11Main.com. Ouchi’s Theory Z represents the adoption of Japanese management practices (group decision making, social cohesion, job security, holistic concern for employees, etc. People are by nature indolent. The Three Needs Motivation Theory of David McClelland simplifies the factors of motivation to three basic needs, power, achievement, and affiliation. 4. Tmall charges merchants a deposit, an annual fee, and a commission fee on transactions. Argyris’s Theory 7. It was Tmall that pioneered “Singles Day” in 2009 as an annual promotional event to reward users with discounts. Behavioral learning concepts such as association and reinforcement play an important role in this theory of motivation.. In India, Maruti-Suzuki, Hero-Honda, etc., apply the postulates of theory Z. Argyris has developed his motivation theory based on proposition how management practices affect the individual behaviour and growth In his view, the seven changes taking place in an individual personality make him/her a mature one. People who have a high need for power are characterized by: 1. What will be perceived as a motivator depends on the individual’s needs. This refers to fulfillment. Theories of Motivation in Management # Theories of Motivation: All of the theories depend on the individual’s perception of what is a valued motivator. Argyris views that immaturity exists in individuals mainly because of organisational setting and management practices such as task specialisation, chain of command, unity of direction, and span of management. There are three main theory categories, namely content theories, process theories and contemporary theorie… 3. This is the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standard, and to strive to succeed. About 0% of these are Temperature Instruments. According to chapter 5, it states that employer can motivate employees by rewarding them through several different variable-pay programs. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. The Alibaba Group follows a business model that differs from e-commerce leaders in the United States and allows the firm to play the middleman to … McClelland’s Need Theory 4. By instrumentality, Vroom means, the belief that performance is related to rewards. How much effort an employee will put in a task is determined by two factors-. It is not unlikely that a person may dislike part of his/ her job, still thinks the job acceptable. Critics like Porter and Lawler lebeled it as a theory of cognitive hedonism which proposes that individual cognitively chooses the course of action that leads to the greatest degree of pleasure or the smallest degree of pain. This aspect of Alibaba's business model is similar to Google (GOOGL), which makes a significant amount of its revenue through online advertising. alibaba group offerings Tmall Taobao Marketplace Freshippo Alibaba Health 1688.com Lingshoutong AliExpress Lazada Group Kaola Alibaba.com Ele.me Koubei Fliggy Youku Alibaba Pictures Damai Amap DingTalk Cainiao Network Alimama Ant Group Alibaba Cloud Alisports Alibaba Entrepreneurs Fund Alibaba Global Initiatives Die Umsetzung von Motiven in Handlungen nennt man Volition oder Umsetzungskompetenz. Circle is a financial services company that makes products using blockchain technology. Motivation Theory. Whereas Amazon is housed under one roof, Alibaba is divided into three core businesses: All three of these e-commerce websites serve to connect various types of buyers and sellers, allowing Alibaba to act as a middleman in China's emerging e-commerce industry. This level represents the culmination of all the lower, intermediate, and higher needs of human beings. (ii) Each individual should also know that the relation of organisational goals is going to satisfy his/her needs positively. As regards extrinsic rewards, these may include working conditions and status. Alibaba has also invested in a number of US startups, including video messaging application Snapchat and Lyft. The theory basically explains job satisfaction, not motivation. Among these programs, employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) is quite similar to the incentive system in Alibaba. On the country, if actual rewards fall short of perceived ones, he/she will be dissatisfied. The term self-actualization was coined by Kurt Goldstein and means to become actualized in what one is potentially good at. In 2014 it even bought a 50 percent share of the Guangzhou Evergrande Football Club for $192 million. Three Major Theories of Motivation. They want their organisation to succeed. 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