Development of architecture under different Mughal rulers: Humayun’s tomb built at Delhi (during Akbar’s reign), has a massive dome of marble; normally, it is considered as a precursor of the Taj Mahal. Garden is divided into 4 parts by Charbagh (causeways), in the centre of which run shallow water-channels. It is located in Agra. Taj Mahal – It was built by Shah Jahan between 1632 and 1653, in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. His period is the transition from Lodhi style to the Mughal style of architecture. The Mughals built magnificent forts, palaces, gates, public buildings, mosques, baolis (water tank or well), etc. Building material: During the Mughal period, buildings were constructed mostly of red sandstone and white marble. Akbar period architecture, building style that developed in India under the patronage of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reigned 1556–1605). Some of the typical features include pools, fountains and canals inside the gardens. Mughal gardens are a group of gardens built by the Mughals in the Islamic style of architecture. The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download also contains related Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) which will be beneficial for all Competitive Exams like WBCS (Preli & Mains), UPSC, SSC, Rail (Gr. Important features of this style are Curved lines, Bulbous dome, foliated arches vigorous use of marble instead of red sand stone and use of pietre dura for decorative purposes. The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download contains detailed study notes for this topic. One of the architectural features of medieval India was also a coming together of styles, techniques, and decorations in public and private spaces for non-royal sections of the society. Constructed in the memory of his beloved wife Arzuman Bano Begum or Mumtaz Mahal. Mughal Architecture. The collected and constant efforts of these artists gave birth to a new school of painting, popularly known as the Mughal School of miniature Paintings. INTRODUCTION • Mughal gardens are a group of gardens built by the Mughals in the Islamic style of architecture. Background- Muslim Rule in Subcontinent There were a number of different ruling dynasties who ruled over the subcontinent at successive intervals. He didn’t take any active interest in the pursuit of art and architecture. He built Moti Masjid in Lahore and his own mausoleum at Shahdara (Lahore). One of the important distinguishing features of the Mughal buildings is their ornamentation as compared with the simple buildings of the previous Muslim rulers of India. Described as ‘frozen moment in history’ as the buildings represented a unique combination of Hindu and Persian style. Some of the main features of mughal architecture are mentioned below. Marvel at the grand design and layout. They made use of red and grey sandstone latticed screens, painted ceilings and coloured tiles. His tomb was built at his birthplace Sasaram, Bihar, made up of red sandstone and situated inside a lake. The Mughal paintings are developed during the rule of Mughal Emperors in India (16th to 19th century). Mughal architecture reached its peak during the rule of Shah Jahan. Mughal architecture […] The building material obtained from the destruction of other buildings was used for new improvised buildings such as Quwwat- … The architecture of the Akbar period is characterized by a strength made elegant and graceful by its rich decorative work, which reflects many traditional Hindu It consisted of Diwan-i-aam and Diwan-i-khas. The early Muslim invaders of India had come into the country to merely loot and plunder and did not concern themselves with architecture. The Mughal buildings show a uniform pattern both in structure and character. Influenced by Mughals but unique in size and scope of construction. He focused more on paintings and other art forms. 0: if directly started body saying “Notable features of Mughal architecture are as following… …” 1: if only introduction written; 2: if both introduction and conclusion written; Body: 1 to 4 marks: Not more than 2 marks if you’ve not mentioned any specific “WHERE ARE HINDU ELEMENTS” Logical structure-1 to 0 Fort Building. The tomb stands on a raised vast platform in the centre of a square garden. Insights has redefined the way preparation is done in UPSC civil service exam It was designed in 1564, eight years after his death, as a mark of devotion by his widow, Haji Begum. 4. Insights is synonymous with UPSC civil services exam preparation. The Mughals were a staunch supporter of art and architecture. He undertook the reconstruction and extension of an old Mauryan route and renamed it as Sadak-e-Azam which was later called as. Buland Darwaza was built by Mughal Emperor Akbar, to commemorate his victory over Gujarat. Thirteenth century had already introduced of the arcuate technique where spaces were covered with domes and entrances were made with the help of arches. 1,2 and 3. Some of the prominent construction under his reign are: One of the first constructions during Akbar’s reign. RELEVANCE – GS PRE & GS MAINS PAPER I – CULTURE SECTION Sikri town ( in Agra ) was founded as the capital of Mughal Empire in 1571 by Emperor Akbar. Under the patronage of Mughal emperors, the architecture of forts and tombs saw a striking resemblance to Islamic architecture. The structure is an impressive example of Mughal architecture. Reasons for Muslim conquests – the wealth of the nation & the spread of Islam. The character and structure of Mughal buildings displayed a uniform character and structure. Each side pierced by arches and halls mounted by a large dome. The city came to be known as Fatehpur Sikri, the “City of Victory”, after Akbar’s victorious Gujarat campaign in 1573. In this period there was extensive use of red sandstone as building material. Shalimar Gardens – It is a 40 acre garden built by Shah Jahan in 1642. Made of red stone on the bank of river Yamuna. Ans . Your email address will not be published. Mughal architecture under him reached its zenith. The construction was completed in 1656. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) recognized Taj Mahal as a World Heritage Site in 1983. were also introduced. These include buildings for domestic usage, temples, mosques, Khanqahs and dargahs, commemorative gateways, pavilions in the buildings and gardens, bazaars, etc. It was built in 1601 A.D and acts as entrance to the Jama Masjid at Fatehpur Sikri. This was the new capital city made by Akbar and was a new era of Indo-Islamic architecture. The character and structure of Mughal buildings displayed a uniform character and structure. He shifted his capital city from Agra to Delhi. Architecture During Mughal Period. • This style was influenced by Persian Gardens and Timurid gardens. Mughal dynasty was established after the battle of Panipat in 1526. The Mughals were known for building beautiful quadrilateral gardens. 3. Humayun’s Tomb – It was built in 1570 in memory of Emperor Humayun, it was declared as the world heritage site in 1993. Aspirants can find information on the structure and other important details related to the IAS Exam, in the linked article. Similar to literature and religion, the Mughal period was not an era of complete innovation and renaissance, but was an extension and culmination of processes that began in the last Ottoman-Afghan era. During this reign, architecture touched its zenith, many new buildings and tombs were built with great artistic vision and inspiration. Sikandar Lodhi’s Tomb was the first garden-tomb built in India but it was the Humayun’s Tomb which gave new vision to art. 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Mughal architecture first developed and flourished during the reign of Akbar. Humayun reestablished the Mughal empire in 1555. The new rulers effected an amalgam of the prevalent architectural forms and techniques with those brought from Central Asia and … It was the residence of Mughal rulers. IAS Admit Card 2020 Out: Download UPSC CSE Mains Exam Admit Card, UPSC Study Material: Complete Notes for Prelims Exam in Hindi & English [Free], Monthly Current Affairs Test 2020: Attempt Quiz in Hindi & English, UPSC IAS Prelims Answer Key 2020: Download SET A, B, C & D Answer Key PDF. B He made the best use of Hindu and Persian style of architecture.The salient features of Akbar’s buildings are the use of red sandstone inlaid with white marble and painted designs on walls and ceiling. They also laid out many formal gardens with running water. It was built by Shah Jahan, when he decided to move the capital from Agra to Delhi. It can be translated as Door to Victory. They developed Indo-Islamic architecture in the Indian subcontinent. 3 only. They developed Indo-Islamic architecture in the Indian subcontinent. Indo Islamic and Mughal Architecture 1. Mughals brought in Persian style into Indian Architecture. On similar lines, square, red, sandstone; the double storeyed structure of the mausoleum rises over a high square terrace; raised over a series of cells; etc. The reign of Akbar is known for the initial works of Mughal School done by Mir Sayyed Ali and Abdus Samad Khan. Mughal architecture is a building style that developed in the Indian subcontinent from the 16th until the early 18th century, during the reign of the Mughal Empire. It is the largest palace in the abandoned yet magnificent city of Fatehpur Sikri. It was built during the reign of Aurangazeb. Note: Charbagh style- the gardens inside the fort were built according to this style. Candidates can find the general pattern of the UPSC Civil Service Exam by visiting the IAS Syllabus page. For the first time, red sandstone was used along with white (the white is used cleverly to emphasize, surround & underline doors and windows, strengthening the design). Red Sandstone was amply used in Mughal monuments. Its architects were R … Continue reading "Architecture at Fatehpur Sikri" Further facilitated by the inter-rivalry and lack of unity … Important Features of Mughal Architecture: Blend of Indian, Persian, and Turkish architectural style. Badshahi Mosque – At the time of completion in 1673, it was the largest mosque in the world. Bara Imambara built by the Nawab of Oudh in 1784. The architectural style is a remarkable mixture of Islamic, Indian, Turkish, and Persian styles. D, ASM, TTE), Food Sub Inspector, WB Police, … Safdar Jung’s tomb, built in the honour of Safdar Jung (1739-1753), who was the nephew of the first Nawab of Oudh. It includes the building of palaces and forts. One of the finest creations of the Mughal, Jodha Bai’s Palace in Fatehpur Sikri was a gift to the Rajput wife of the Mughal Emperor, Akbar. His tomb at Delhi represents an outstanding landmark in the development and refinement of the Mughal style. Post – Mughal Style of Architecture AVADH (OUDH) STYLE. Large halls; Very large vaulted gateways; Delicate ornamentation; Bulbous domes; Slender Minarets with cupolas at the 4 corners Babur undertook the construction of a mosque in Panipat and Rohilkhand in 1526 A.D. His reign was too small for any new style and design but he was fond of formal gardens. The most important features of the Mughal monuments in India are the bulbous domes with constricted necks, the slender minarets with cupolas at the four corners, large halls, massive vaulted gateways and delicate ornamentation. Mughal emperors erected building of supreme beauty and grandeur. He succeeded Babur but the reign was filled with constant struggle and war with Sher Shah Suri. Red Fort – UNESCO designated it as the World Heritage Site in 2007. The Mughals were a staunch supporter of art and architecture. The decline of Mughal architecture began during the rule of Aurangazeb and post his death. Mughal rulers were men of acute aesthetic awareness who revitalised Indo-Islamic architecture. The Mughals were a Muslim Empire descended from the Mongol Empire of Turkestan. This style was influenced by Persian gardens and Timurid gardens. 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SALIENT FEATURES • Pools, • Fountains • Canals inside the gardens. A large trade developed between India and Western Asia and Europe, which greatly contributed to the travelers. 2. introduction of the arch and dome in the region’s architecture 3. establishment of Timurid dynasty Select the correct answer using the code given below: (UPSC CSAT 2015) 1 and 2 only. The Taj Mahal is a great example of Mughals’ architecture, which brought together all the architectural forms developed by the Mughals in a very pleasing manner. In fact, use of running water even in their palaces and pleasure resorts was a special feature of the Mughals. The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download. During his reign, architecture reached its height and some of the principle works were: The finest example of architecture and mark of Love. Mughal gardens. They developed or improve the style of earlier dynasties like Lodhi’s and it was a combination of Islamic, Persian, Turkish and Indian Architecture. Use of red sandstone was principle feature and he introduced the use of. Some of the main features of mughal architecture are mentioned below. Red Fort is an irregular octagon with its walls, gates, and a few other structures constructed in red sandstone, and marble used for the palaces. They developed or improve the style of earlier dynasties like Lodhi’s and it was a combination of Islamic, Persian, Turkish and Indian Architecture. Required fields are marked *, Slender Minarets with cupolas at the 4 corners, Aspirants can find information on the structure and other important details related to the. Different types of buildings, such as majestic gates (entrances), … It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981. Some of the most famous buildings created during Mughal era are given below. The features include calligraphy, pietra dura works (beautiful inlay work with precious multicolour stones), Charbagh style gardens, use of water in premises for decoration and foresightening technique. This document is highly rated by UPSC students and has been viewed 2285 times. The absence of pillars in the main hall and simplicity of style and symmetry are its unique features. Fluted domes covered with brass and copper guilds and arches were decorated. Key Features of Mughal Paintings: The Mughal pictures were small in size, and hence are known as ‘miniature paintings’. These two artists were originally employed by Humayun. Two Frenchmen Bernier and Travenier an an Italian adventurer Manucci, the author of the Storio Dor Mogor, are specially noteworthy. Forgusson has opined that the Mugha style of architecture was foreign in origin. Use of multiple Chhatris on the top of the construction. Last Mughal to undertake architectural constructions. Consequently, they did not bring with them, architects or masons. The art and culture of India contain Paintings, music, architecture etc. What was the New Indian Architecture of the Mughal period called? He occupied the throne of Delhi in 1556, the golden period of Mughal art and architecture. Jama Masjid – Built by Shah Jahan. Significant use of rectilinear layouts are made within the walled enclosures. • Significant use of Rectilinear Layouts are made within the walled enclosures. Here we are giving a gist of Mughal painting which is essential in UPSC IAS Examination. 1 and 3 only. The two most celebrated works accompli… Mughal architecture started declining during his period. What Great Buildings did the Mughals Create? Compare and contrast the architectural features of the Delhi Sultanate with that of Mughal architecture. Mughal architecture begins with Akbar who displayed great passion for buildings with meticulous planning and constructing splendid edifices. The new Indian Architecture of the Mughal period is called Mughal Architecture. INDO ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE AND THE MIGHTY MUGHALS 2. Apart from this celebrated duo, more than a hundred painters were employed, most of whom were Hindus from Gujarat, Gwalior and Kashmir. Mughal painting echoes an elite mixture of Indian, Persian and Islamic styles. Dec 18, 2020 - Doc: Mughal Administration - The Mughal Empire, History, UPSC UPSC Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of UPSC. The material used by them to build early structures was derived from the destruction of temples in India. During this reign, architecture touched its zenith, many new buildings and tombs were built with great artistic vision and inspiration. Mughals brought in Persian style into Indian Architecture. Architecture flourished during the reign of Humayun’s son Akbar. The Mughals constructed excellent mausoleums, mosques, forts, gardens and cities. Though the Mughal art absorbed the Indian atmosphere, it neither represented the Indian emotions, nor the scenes from the daily life of the Indian. Persian style was prominent during this period. The art and architecture of the period after 1526 reveal a happy blending of Muslim and Hindu art traditions. Developed in Punjab and influenced by the Mughal architecture. The Mughal architecture was an amalgamation of Persian, Turkic, Timurid Iranian, Central Asian, and Indian Hindu style of architecture. 5. Indian architecture entered upon a new phase with the advent of the Mughals. And after Babur, every emperor took great considerable interest in the architecture field. To complement your preparation for the upcoming exam, check the following links: The Mughals constructed excellent Forts, Mosques, Mausoleums, Gardens and Cities. Cornices were built in the shape of an arch such that shadow took shape of a bow. Jaali work is lace-like and carvings on marble were finely done. 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