During the colonial era, a secular approach to state formation and administration applied in spite of the strong … This chapter presents an analysis of the ways that Muslim youth from Northern Nigeria construct, assert and navigate their identities. We report in this contribution new experimental results in the neutron rich Sr-96,Sr-98 investigated by safe Coulomb excitation of, Electroweak production of the top quark is measured for the first time in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV, using a data set collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb-1. The second section discusses the periods of anti-modernisation (1910-90) and modernisation (1990-2012) in South Africa. period of stability. Secularization is the process by which a society becomes more and more distant from its Christian roots. South Africa is in the news,and Christians are called upon to explain the relationship between Christianityand apartheid. Part 3 Christianity in South Africa sub-cultures: all-male christianity in gold-mine compounds, Tshidiso Maloka-- Women's christian organisations, Deborah Gaiskell-- Conversion, slavery and gender in urban western Cape, Robert C.H. Background. The writing of a new Constitution was an opportunity to finally establish the grounds for an inclusive ‘moral community between rulers and ruled’ (Fields, 1982). Future perspectives are presented including the recent experimental campaign performed at ILL-Grenoble. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.18772/12017090572, (For EndNote, ProCite, Reference Manager, Zotero, Mendeley...), 2 A SOUTH AFRICAN MORALITY TALE: RELIGION, TRADITION AND RACIALISED RULE, 3 NEGOTIATED CONSENSUS AND RELIGIOUS RIGHTS. This shape change has made the neutron-rich A = 100 region an active area of experimental and theoretical studies for many decades now. Why, in other words, was this element of indirect rule maintained over the threshold of apartheid? In view of the above, this paper discusses first, the nature and essence of religion (specifically, Christian religion); second, the concept of national integration; and third, the paper sug-gests a transcendental religious orientation for national in-tegration. A History of African Christianity, 1950–1975. However, he adds that this resurgence does not necessarily imply a new interest in the main ecclesiastical traditions. Importantly, this contextualisation includes reference to the colonial history and its significance to the formation of the Nigerian State. the rapid spread of Pentecostalism in the global South, communal violence in Southern Asia, the collapse of communism qua secular religion, etc. Christianity is the dominant religion in South Africa, with almost 80% of the population in 2001 professing to be Christian.No single denomination predominates, with mainstream Protestant churches, Pentecostal churches, African initiated churches, and the Catholic Church all having significant numbers of adherents. Personal factors and the proximal and distal contexts interact to encourage HIV risk behaviour in ways that are not fully captured by social-cognitive models. Thomas Groome proposes a Shared Praxis Approach to Christian religious. Meanwhile, there are too many places in our world where religion is used as a pretext for violence. Though the formal sociological theory is more complicated than that, the essence of secularization is the fact that the culture no longer depends upon Christian symbols, morals, principles, or practices. In addition to a thorough literature review a qualitative survey was implemented to probe practitioners’ perceptions of teacher effectiveness. They also have different forms of expression in the diverse faith communities which make up these two major religions. We must find way… The rise of secularism in South Africa | The inbetweener space By Eshlin Vedan and Mark Nancarrow According to the last population census that recorded religious identity, 79.8% of South African citizens identified as Christian. Turning to gender, the lack of an explicit reference to this within youth narratives of identity stood in stark comparison with the way it structured everyday life. However, as the attention of various disciplines has been drawn to developing societies, an awareness of the potential influence of religion has grown. This paper is based on longitudinal research aiming at developing a comprehensive definition of teacher effectiveness for the South African context. By Hannah Brockhaus. With this term Habermas ventured to identify a new paradigm in Western thought and social development which testifies to a renewed interest in religion and metaphysics. Interviews were also conducted with a variety of educational specialists. Sigurdson (2010:177) identifies this phenomenon as a "re-enchantment" of society possibly with a reference to the view of the philosopher Taylor (2007:21) that secularism brought about "disenchantment" in the modernist society. This article will explore several views on secularization, what it is, and where it has been believed to challenge traditional religion. (eds. Separation immediately implies their relationship. Twenty years ago, in 1994, democracy finally came to South Africa, the wealthiest and most powerful nation of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, most people believe the growing rate of atheism should be synonymous with secularism so as to create a … In his recent empirical research Martin (2011:105) concludes that this revitalisation of religions is also evident in the Christian religion with certain exceptions in Western Europe. Several contemporary case studies reaffirm this notion. Linked with this was the demand that biblical principles, or at least ‘public morality’, should be included in the Constitution’s interpretation clause, providing a Christian or moral majoritarian... South Africa’s transition took place well into the rising tide of globalisation, neoliberalism, new forms of religion and a global remobilisation of cultural and ethnic identities. On closer, This study opens with an exploration of the philosophical theories of two recognized scholars in the field of religious education with a view to providing a basis or jumping-off-point from which to present what the author sees as a development of a more advanced and freeing procedure for the religious development of the young. Papers included in the review were dated between 1990 and 2000 and addressed sexual behaviour of youth between the ages of 14 and 35 years. As region and religion did not map neatly on to one another, Northern Muslim youth invested considerable effort to ‘other’ their Muslim compatriots from the south. The term "post-secularism" was introduced in a 2004 Television debate between the German philosopher Habermas and Cardinal Ratzinger, the former Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. In their identity narratives religion was a dominant discursive axis of belonging and of differentiation. Zieberts & Riegel (2009:300), amongst others, say that a new, relevant kind of religion is emerging where religion is seen as a source of socio-moral commitment, because it proposes an ethical orientation. According to Cliteur (2010:1) religions are growing. Today, thanks to rapid population growth in South America, Africa and Asia, most of the world’s Christians reside in the Southern Hemisphere. Why did the churches give up so much of their political role in the transition? These variables are often highest in Pentecostalism, and in certain types of AIC. ‘Religion in South Africa’s past’, writes Dhammamegha Annie Leatt has been ‘saturated by politics’ and politics ‘saturated by religion’. Religions of South Africa. secularisation in Africa, in which we limit ourselves to Africa south of the Sahara. We argue that the experiences and perceptions of the interviewed young people support the view promoted by some scholars that, for social cohesion to actualise in society, issues related to social justice must be addressed. Try logging in through your institution for access. How can we not? Based on research in a South African township, conducted after the macro-transition to democratic government, this article explores the social and economic mechanisms at work in a variety of Christian churches. It argues that their capacity to effect social change 'from below' is uneven, and that the most powerful are those which maximise four variables: indoctrination, religious experience, exclusion and socialisation. The first one exploits the special angular properties of the signal, together, With the rapid increase of electric bicycles (E-bikes) in China, the heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow comprising regular bicycles and E-bikes using shared cycleway creates issues in terms of efficiency as well as safety. During the early, that is Dutch period of colonisation (1652-1795) Christian mission was related to colonialism mainly as justification ex post facto (cf Bosch 1991:302-304). How can we think about tradition and the customary in relation to secularism? Gender relations were an important symbol of religious identity. There were other forces at work, the long-term effects of which were only dimly recognized at the time. The first section examines the secularisation thesis of Weber and his supporters, as well as theories of desecularisation. On the basis of its omnipresence, myriad manifestations, causes and impacts, corruption is found to be a complex, dynamic and ever-changing social phenomenon. African architecture - African architecture - Influences of Islam and Christianity: Early civilizations in the western Sudan region had strong trading links across the Sahara, and an Islamic presence was established south of the desert 1,000 years ago. on JSTOR. The review concluded that at least 50% of young people are sexually active by the age of 16 years; the majority of school students who had ever experienced sexual intercourse reported at the most one partner in the previous year, with a persistent minority of between 1% and 5% of females and 10-25% of males having more than four partners per year; and between 50% and 60% of sexually active youth report never using condoms. The results indicate that, with around 70% share of E-bikes, the mean estimated capacity is 2348 bicycle/h/m. However, he adds that this resurgence does not necessarily imply a new interest in the main ecclesiastical traditions. It is impossible to totally eradicate it, and one can only strive to consistently reduce its intensity and scope over time. Tension fields that involve critical and constructive action in a situation of endemic corruption cannot be negotiated without ridding the own presence from potential corruptive elements like hidden exclusivity, half-hearted concern and compromise. ), Millennium - Journal of International Studies, Social justice required: Youth at the margins, churches and social cohesion in South Africa, Nigeria: Muslim Youth and Internal Others in a Multi-religious Nation, Changing World Religion Map: Status, Literature and Challenges, Dealing with corruption in South African civil society: Orientating Christian communities for their role in a post-apartheid context, Unsafe sexual behavior in South African Youth, Religion as a Source of Social Change in the New South Africa, A New Christianity for a New South Africa: Charismatic Christians and the Post-Apartheid Order, Complexity Thinking in the Fight Against Corruption: Some Perspectives From South Africa. In the 11th century Kumbi, the capital of the kingdom of Ghana (in present-day Mali), was described as having a dozen mosques. The influence of Christianity on African Traditional Religion and African Christian religiosity was achieved through the evangelisation of Africans by returnee African Christian slaves … This article about Christianity in South Africa today first appeared in the Fall 2016 issue of Providence‘s print edition. The first is a clear, well-understood and administratively mobiliseddifferentiationbetween the religious and the political. The finding of the article is that the South African experience indicates that modernisation has an impact on religion, but the effect is not necessarily one of a decline in religion. With an event selection optimized for t-channel production, two complementary analyses are performed. In this book I have defined political secularism as the development of a normative account of the place of religion in politics and society and a series of disciplinary interventions that seek to secure that religion is put and kept in that place. 6 SECULAR CONSTITUTIONALISM IN SOUTH AFRICA? Christian mission came to South Africa firmly entangled with western colonialism. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. This chapter is in two sections: the first concentrates on Islamic revivalist practices in, Burial customs described under five headings are traced from the Iron Age through to the end of the Roman period. However, in the last few decades, with the growth of other religions as well as atheism, the nation has become more secularized. The study of religion is increasingly being accepted as a legitimate and serious subject of inquiry by scholars in the social and policy sciences and humanities and those in regional studies, and interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary programs. Why, then, did the negotiators come to recognise the institution of chieftainship within their vision of a postapartheid society and an otherwise liberal Constitution? The discussion concludes by making a case for the need to anchor the realignment of the prophetic voice and the revitalisation of the transformative presence in a profound and far-reaching theological reorientation. What seems to linger so much is the cries of marginalization; promotion of individu-alistic and ethnic interests such as ethnic resource control; propagation of exclusive religious ideologies; and the prac-tice of sectional and tribal politics et cetera. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. How do we understand these changes in the faith, and what impact will global connectedness have on the church? Elizabeth Isichei, A History of Christianity in Africa, S.P.C.K., London, 1995, pp. More inclusively, this refers to a separation of religious and political institutions. South Africa is an important case study because it went through a rapid process of modernisation from the 1990s onwards. So how, she asks, was it possible for a new state to found itself without religious authority? The divides within South African society remain stark, also for youth born after apartheid officially ended in 1994. The first element is a configuration of relationships between religious and state bodies through which religious institutions are excluded from the exercise of state power. Hansjörg Dilger, Dorothea Schulz, Politics of Religious Schooling: Christian and Muslim Engagements with Education in Africa, Journal of Religion in Africa, 10.1163/15700666-12341262, 43, 4, … The second is aseparationof ‘church and state’, as it is referred to in Christian terms. Her missionaries unconsciously introduced secularism, by promoting a privatised, departmentalised religion, that does not effectively challenge the myths of economism (cf. The Dutch Reformed Church, it was said in apartheid South Africa, was the National Party at prayer, and indeed, given that the Bible was so fundamental to much of the legislation that governed the apartheid state, that apparently satirical description had the ring of truth. To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author. relation to segregation and veiling, and the second on Christian revivalist practices in relation to dress and decorum. This prompts the question as to whether an unbiased assessment of religions is possible at all. In The State of Secularism Leatt guides the reader from a history of global political secularism through an exploration of the roles played by religion and traditional authority in apartheid South Africa to the position of religion in the post-apartheid state. Christianity is targeted by critics of colonialism because the tenets of the religion were used to justify the actions of the colonists. Critics of apartheid often blame Christians for itsexistence claiming that racial oppression in South Africa is the fruit ofChristianity. Reduced transition probabilities and spectroscopic quadrupole moments have been extracted from the differential Coulomb excitation cross section supporting the scenario of shape coexistence/change at N = 60. While as Muslims they were keen to distance themselves from extremism, terrorism and the actions of Boko Haram, they constructed Christians as the ‘internal other’. Measurement of the t-Channel Single Top Quark Production Cross Section in pp Collisions at [sqrt]s=7... Estimating cycleway capacity and bicycle equivalent unit for electric bicycles, Romano-British Burial Customs and Religious Beliefs in South-East England, RELIGION AND NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA: A TRANSCENDENTAL RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVE, Hadron-jet correlations in high-energy hadronic collisions at the LHC, Teacher Effectiveness in the South African Context: First Steps towards a Comprehensive Definition, The importance of personal experience in religious education /. \n . Every political leader and every political party speaks the vocabulary of secularism. of Christianity in South Africa. Sigurdson (2010:177) identifies this phenomenon as a "re-enchantment" of society possibly with a reference to the view of the philosopher Taylor (2007:21) that secularism brought about "disenchantment" in the modernist society. book Christianity and Secularisation in South Africa: Probing the Possible Link between Modernisation and Secularisation August 2013 Studies in World Christianity 19(2):141-161 How have religion and tradition fared in the postapartheid state? radioactive beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility, CERN. But let us start with the story of Christianity in South Africa at the very beginning. (Abstract shortened by UMI. between the identified jet and hadron and for azimuthal correlations. We present some predictions, tailored on the CMS and CASTOR acceptances, for the cross section averaged over the azimuthal angle, It is widely agreed by researchers and policy makers that the success of every aspect of school reform depends on the dedicated efforts of highly effective teachers. In 1652 the Dutch East India Company established a refreshment station at the Cape. South Africa, unlike in western Europe, secularization has been accompanied, not by a decline in religious devotion, but by a dramatic rise.’ It has been noted time and again that Pentecostalism, especially charismatic Pentecostalism or what I call modern Pentecostalism, is the fastest growing type of Christianity in Africa (Marshall 1992, 7-32). … Recent figures report that since 2000, the Catholic population grew by 33% in Asia, by 15.6% in Africa, and by 10.9% in Central and South America. Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Making use of the interdisciplinary results of social sciences and civil-society studies, the author provides an overview for Christian communities and their leaders in theologically orientating themselves for an appropriate angle of approach in entering the public sphere with a view on authentic and impactful participation in anti-corruption dialogue and actions. It threatens to increase the percentage of unaffiliated dramatically. The secularisation theory of Max Weber states that modernisation inevitably leads to the decline of religion. This theory has in recent years been challenged by the desecularisation theories of various sociologists and philosophers. The 207 chapters discuss religious issues in over 60 countries and are written by scholars from nearly 40 countries. This chapter summarizes the books remaining 14 parts: nature, ethics and environmental change; sacred spaces and places; pilgrimage landscapes and tourism; education and changing worldviews; business, finance, economic development and law; globalization, diasporas and new faces in the Global North; globalization, diasporas and new faces in the Global South; secularization; megachurches and architecture; culture (museums, drama, fashion, food, music, sports and science fiction); organizations; identity, gender and culture; politics, reconciliation and advocacy; and virtual worlds and the visual media. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. The findings will be of interest to researchers and practitioners in the fields of adolescent sexual behaviour and HIV prevention in developing countries. It has wonderful insights into the founding of a constitutional democracy in South African and will appeal to students in history, politics, sociology and anthropology and constitutional law. We will also conclude with a brief critique of the secularization hypothesis, which states that as the world becomes progressively more technologically and scientifically advanced religion will necessarily fall by the wayside. In the scholarship of recent decades, religion has been accorded little power as a source of social change, either 'from above' (via changes at the macro-level) or 'from below' (at the micro-level). In this, In situ hybridization with sense-probe for ARR1 in the gynoecium. How are Christians to respond? At the same time a conflation of region and religion (Northern Muslim—Southern Christian) worked to flatten local ethnic differences. This book makes a tremendous contribution to the literature on postcolonial politics on the African continent. A final section discusses religious belief as evidenced by burials. London: Routledge, 1992. Teacher effectiveness must be clearly defined to profile the teacher who should be standing in front of the classroom. These findings can be used to propose practical countermeasures to improve the capacity of heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow on shared cycleway. exist-ence as an independent nation. Teachers are reported to be dispirited, demoralised, underperforming and tired of reforms. For decades, Africa has tried to rid itself of the, most often, oppressive powers that have dominated the continent. (TIF), Even though there are moments of overlap, modesty practices and the issue of head covering, which have significance in both traditions, are treated differently in Christianity and Islam. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, this discussion focuses on the main Johannesburg congregation of a grouping of churches that have successfully engaged with aspects of socio-economic transformation in post-apartheid South Africa. The free AfricaBib App for Android is available here. Special attention is given to the relationship between the two dimensions of social cohesion in the context of local churches. This article probes the possible link between modernisation and secularisation through a case study of the Republic of South Africa. They attempted a subordination of black interests to white rule by instrumentalising traditional leadership, customary law, Christianity, violence and duplicitous forms of legality. He emphasizes the need for appropriation, by the student, of that which he calls the Christian Story. The authors find that corruption is comparable to a social virus that continuously mutates and adapts to new environments to counter anti-corruption strategies. ��� This annotated bibliography is an attempt to remind the Christiancommunity that the question of the relationship between Christianity andapartheid is hardly new, that already a large literature exists dealin… She analyses the negotiations relating to religion in the constitution-making process, arguing, that South Africa is both secular in its Constitution and judicial foundations and increasingly non-secular in its embrace of traditional authorities and customary law. What kind of secularism does it have? Furthermore, churches could play a more central role in doing so – at least more so than what appears to currently be the case. 262263). Zieberts & Riegel (2009:300), amongst others, say that a new, relevant kind of religion is emerging where religion is seen as a source of socio-moral commitment, because it proposes an ethical orientation. According to the transcendental religious perspective, national integration in Nigeria after independ-ence is not a choice; rather, it is an ontological necessity (Ajah 9).Therefore, the question of national integration should not be ignored, sidelined or discarded in the name of any religious, political or ethnic guise/affiliation; rather, it should be encouraged, embraced and put into practice by the people of Nigeria in order to promote unity and devel-opment within and outside the nation. shell-- Christianity and the jews, Milton Shain-- christianity among Indian South Africans, Gerald J. Pillay. And what does this mean in terms of South Africa’s... During the constitutional negotiations some Christian groups mobilised to have God recognised as sovereign authority over the polity, a demand that presupposed God’s willed intervention in history and a human obligation to act in ways that could guarantee God’s blessing. Book Description: The Dutch Reformed Church, it was said in apartheid South Africa, was the National Party at prayer, and indeed, given that the Bible was so fundamental to much of the legislation that governed the apartheid state, that apparently satirical description had the ring of truth. For example, Toyin Falola asserts that there were some missionaries who believed that "the agenda of colonialism in Africa was similar to that of Christianity". The first dimension comprises of aspects such as participation, diversity and trust, whereas the second relates to justice and equity. South Africa is grappling with large numbers of dysfunctional schools in high-poverty areas. The new proposal focuses on an examination of each student's personal experience with that which we call God, experiences within the framework of the child's initial orientation and then, progressively taking into account other major religious orientations. The historical importance of religion and tradition to South African governance raises the question of whether and how it is possible for a new postapartheid state to found itself without their authority. Secularization in the United States is a hotly debated topic. Within this broader context, and based on qualitative interviews and focus group data, this article explores how young people in two South African communities experience isolation and separation in their everyday life and how they perceive the role of churches, in particular, in strengthening or weakening this sense of marginalisation. Our world where religion is used as a pretext for violence to flatten local ethnic differences Africa a. 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