Primary hosts include hemlocks (Tsuga sp. Before they emerge, they can sometimes be found under the white cotton of the pupal stage. If trees are treated before bud break, waiting to as close to bud break as possible will increase efficacy. Symptoms the host tree experiences include: Each female produces 12 to 16 eggs at a time which hatch within a month. The elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa Ferris) (EHS) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) is a serious pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere and was first discovered in New York City in 1908 (Sasscer 1912). To date, forest infestations in the absence of planted trees have only been found in Kittery and Frye Island. These include pine needle scale (Chionaspis pinifoliae), hemlock scale (Hemiberlesia ithacae) and pine tortoise scale (Toumeyella parvicornis). Elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris, an invasive scale in the USA, is native to Japan and China that is a pest of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carrière) in the eastern United States. Males emerge as a tiny winged insect with large black eyes and long antennas. Elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), is an armored scale insect native to Japan and eastern Asia (Murakami 1970). Elongate Hemlock Scale (Fiorinia externa Ferris) Fact Sheet. Mixed infestations of scales and adelgids can greatly hasten hemlock decline. Hosts: Elongate hemlock scale is known to develop and reproduce on 43 spe- Elongate Hemlock Scale- Beyond Pest Control is a fast reliable pest control company, We've been in the business since 1971. With the other products, to avoid label restrictions for flowering plants during application, consider using low rates of Roundup to stunt weeds and stop flowering in ground covers one to two weeks prior to making insecticide applications for EHS control. Be sure to obtain current information about usage regulations and examine a current product label before applying any chemical. Because of this the best control with foliar applied insecticides is during this time period. However, such symptoms are not commonly seen on Fraser fir in western North Carolina. The elongate hemlock scale is in a group of insects called “armored scales”. Fertilization with nitrogen can increase populations of this armored scale. If female, they will never move again. This pest may also be regulated, and trees must be scale-free to ship to other countries and to other states where the scale is not yet found. This adult female has been flipped over and teased open to show several eggs. Mga kasarigan. The females and eggs are protected by a hard, waxy covering. Infestations can also develop on over 40 species of native and exotic conifers, including Douglas fir, pine, and yew. Elongate hemlock scale has a host range up to 40 species of conifers and prefers: hemlock, fir, and spruce. There is only a small, shield-like opening underneath for the feeding tube to be inserted into the needle, otherwise she is completely protected from the outside world. Elongate Hemlock Scale Trials 2009 Photo captions from left to right: Female scale flipped over to show small area, outlined in yellow, through which the scale feeds. The elongate hemlock scale is in a group of insects called “armored scales”. Hemlock scale crawlers create waxy secretions that build into a mass of tangled strands, giving the lower surface of infested needles a white appearance. Talus also has the least impact on the parasitic wasp. Cooperative Extension is based at North Carolina's two land-grant institutions, They overwinter in ground litter during the colder months. The flattened, elongate, light yellow brown to brownish orange waxy cover of the adult female is about 1.5 mm long. Time Safari foliar applications from mid-May through early fall and trunk applications before bud-break or shoot elongation. parts. 2005). of which several species are native to the United States. Translucent, oval eggs occur beneath the scale covering of the female. Symptoms the host tree experiences include: Yellow spots developed on the upper surface of hemlock needles Eggs are laid inside this envelope and crawlers, when they hatch, emerge from it. The EHS is found almost exclusively on the underside of needles. NC State University and NC Cryptomeria scale on underside of needle. Scales can also be controlled before bud break, though typically control would be better if the trees were treated in the summer. It may infest its namesake host as well as on other conifers including firs, Douglas-fir, spruces, cedars, pines, and yews. Elongate hemlock scaleis a common pest of the Eastern hemlock. An introduced Hemlock pest, the elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa Ferris), which has been doing considerable damage to Hemlock trees throughout North America, can be moderately controlled by the presence of C. stigma. Hosts: Elongate hemlock scale is known to develop and reproduce on 43 spe- Elongate Hemlock Scale Page 2 of 2 . Crawlers may move somewhere else on the same needle, crawl onto the new growth, or move passively through wind or bird movement onto other trees or fields. Elongate hemlock scale is reported to develop and reproduce on 43 species of native and exotic conifers. Scout before treatment to determine the prevalence of the immature nymphs. There can be as many as 30 scales on a single needle with scales sometimes found on top of each other. [3] C. stigma is currently not a lady beetle that can be sold for commercial use in orchards or on farms. A month after application it requires examination under a microscope to determine if individuals are still alive. If scales are found in a field, shift pest control for other pests to timing and materials that will control scales. commitment to diversity. As the scale matures, it forms behind the original yellow immature, making it look as if a smaller scale is attached to a larger. When infestations are heavy, trees may have yellow blotches or patches on the needles and growth will be stunted (Figure 1). Elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa) has never been found in the environment of California and would likely have significant economic and environmental impacts if … The adult males have wings and legs and are mobile so they are able to mate with the immobile females. Receive Email Notifications for New Publications. It may also be found in cedar, Douglas fir, pine, and yew when those plants are grown nearby an infested hemlock. The best time to control scales is in the summer when crawlers are moving onto the new growth in June. Distinctive rounded, white ovisacs of hemlock woolly adelgid are found at the base of hemlock needles. The insect damages hemlock needles by inserting needle-like mouth parts into leaf tissue and removing cell fluids. The EHS has two, overlapping generations in the southern Appalachians. During the next period of tree growth, you can also determine if immature scales are moving onto the new growth. An Fiorinia externa in uska species han Insecta nga ginhulagway ni Ferris hadton 1942. The elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa), is an introduced pest from Asia. When deciding when and what to treat with, consider other pests that may be present including balsam woolly adelgid, balsam twig aphid and Cinara aphids which can be controlled when scales are being treated. Elongate hemlock scale has become a problem in North America, where it sometimes occurs with two other exotic pests: the circular hemlock scale Nuculapsis tsugae , and the hemlock wooly adelgid Adelges tsugae . [citation needed]. — Read our It is very probable that elongate hemlock scale is established in Maine's forests outside of these areas. It damages trees by feeding on the undersides of their needles, sapping … Though commonly associated with hemlocks, EHS can feed on many species of conifers including firs, pines, spruces, cedars, and Douglas fir. This publication printed on: Dec. 26, 2020, Skip to Cryptomeria Scale and Other Scales of Fraser Fir, NC The waxy covers of this species can be observed on the lower needle surface as well as on new cones. The white, waxy cover of the male is smaller. Scales are usually found in a field during the summer and again in early fall when the males, and therefore the white cotton they produce, are most easily seen. However, since 2000, the prevalence of this pest has continued to increase until it is now a common problem. This invasi… Though EHS is the most common scale problem, there are other scales found on Fraser fir. Applications can be made with a backpack sprayer, but it is important to completely wet the base of the trunk fully around the tree. The insect damages hemlock needles by inserting needle-like mouth parts into leaf tissue and removing cell fluids. This adult female has been flipped over to show the shield-like area through which the scale feeds. Immature female scales go through three stages of development while males have additional prepupal and pupal stages. The white on the foliage may be confused with algae, but if it is EHS, the scales themselves can always be found on the underside of the needles. The males are white and females brown. Damage symptoms include yellow stippling or banding on the needles, overall needle yellowing, and needle loss. This insect is originally from Asia and was first discovered in Portsmouth in 2000. Occasionally scales will create yellow patches on needles. This insect was first documented in the United States in 1908 in Queens, NY, and has since spread throughout most of the eastern United States. Mixed infestations of scales and adelgids can greatly hasten hemlock decline. A third or more of scales will be dead naturally. Treating for EHS should be just one part of pest control in Fraser fir. Several other conifers are secondary hosts, although these are usually infested only in the presence of heavy scale populations on primary hosts. It is beneficial against non native species. Bait treatments and insecticides can be used to control ants in the outside nest. [1] It is shiny black, and there is one red spot on each elytron. Insecticide applications by themselves will not give lost lasting control of scale. ELONGATE HEMLOCK SCALE Fiorinia externa . It has been found in the District of Columbia and in nine states from Virginia to southern New England and west to Ohio. Elongate Hemlock Scale is a species of scale insects that is armored with a hard, waxy covering. In some instances treating two years in a row – in fall and again in the spring – are necessary to get complete control. Figure 1. It takes about 16 weeks to go from a crawler through development to a new generation of crawlers being produced. It has been found in the District of Columbia and in nine states from … commitment to diversity. If they are, control was not adequate. Natural controls. After several months, visually assessing scale mortality in the field becomes easier as the scales appear dried up though adult females may appear to be dead when they are in fact still alive. However, also consider how the materials used and when they are used will affect the parasitic wasp and other natural controls of scales and other pests such as mites. Since it feeds in epidermal tissue instead of vascular tissue, it is not as easily controlled by systemic insecticides. Of these, Safari and Talus have provided the most consistant and long lasting control. This insect was first documented in the United States in 1908 in Queens, NY, and has since spread throughout most of the eastern United States. Cryptomeria scale quickly damages trees with promenient mottling and needle shed which can occur within several weeks of infestation. Pest Alert -The elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris, native to Japan, is a pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, and Carolina hemlock, T. caroliniana, in the Eastern United States. Scales are found on the underside of needles and are round. Elongate hemlock scale—sometimes referred to as Fiorinia scale—is an armored scale found more prevalently in southeastern Pennsylvania. The remainder of the body is black as well, but the abdomen is either yellow or red. The crawlers must find an appropriate feeding site. The elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris, native to Japan, is a pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, and Carolina hemlock, T. caroliniana, in the Eastern United States. Remember that scales will be on 3 or 4 years of growth, so it is important that all the needles are covered. Tree heavily infested with Cryptomeria scale. It is found from Massachusetts to Virginia and west to Ohio (Kosztarab 1996). Infestations that do not reduce tree growth can still make trees unsaleable because of this white covering to the needles. Scouting. Control for Cryptomeria scale is similar to EHS. There are two generations per year with peak crawler production in June and again in August. If male, they won't move until they are fully mature at which point they fly to find a female. EHS attacks the surface of the hemlock needle and sucks out the fluid. Elongate Hemlock Scale is an exotic scale insect that prefers hemlock, spruce and fir but will also feed on cedar, pine, and yew. This insect was introduce to New York in 1908 from Japan and has since spread north to Maine and south to North Carolina. It is beneficial against non native species. In western North Carolina, hemlocks and true firs including Fraser fir are its most common hosts. ), firs (Abies sp. It also can be found on fir, spruce and other conifers. Talus is the only one that does not have any warnings on the label due to toxicity to honey bees. For assistance, contact your local N.C. parts. With trunk applications, the base of the trunk is wetted all the way around so that the chemical systemically moves into all the foliage of the tree. Elongate hemlock scale has become a problem in North America, where it sometimes occurs with two other exotic pests: the circular hemlock scale Nuculapsis tsugae , and the hemlock wooly adelgid Adelges tsugae . Use a high pressure sprayer, creating a fog that moves the materials under the needles. Range in North America. The chromosomes (karyotype) of Chilocorus stigma vary from one individual to another, in both the number of chromosomes (aneuploidy) and their structure (chromosomal polymorphism). A&T State University. Elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externaFerris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), is an armored scale insect native to Japan and eastern Asia (Murakami 1970). Adult females are the hardest. It is sometimes confused with the "two-stabbed lady beetle", Chilocorus orbus, which is widespread in California.[2]. C. stigma mainly lives within terrestrial/arboreal habitats, primarily feeding on aphids found in these habitats as well as scales (such as pine needle scale, beech bark scale and Florida red scale) and mealybugs. Figure 5. Native to Japan, Elongate hemlock scale (EHS) is an armored scale insect targeting eastern and Carolina hemlocks. A grower can mix another material with Dimethoate to also control balsam woolly adelgid if it is needed. Elongate hemlock scale is found almost exclusively on the underside of conifer needles. Elongate hemlock scale attacks over 40 species of conifers — especially eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) which can be common throughout the Appalachian Mountains, as well as Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea), which are commonly grown as Christmas trees.  Elongate hemlock scale is known to develop and reproduce on 43 species, representing 7 genera of native and exotic conifers, including 14 species that are native to the United States. The male develops in the white scale where they grow and eventually pupate into the adult. Fiorinia externa, the elongate hemlock scale (EHS), is a diaspidid scale native to Japan (McClure 1978a), which invaded the eastern United States about 1907 (Davidson and McComb, 1958).It is now found on hemlock (Tsuga … Be sure workers that tag and shear trees are familiar with EHS appearance and will flag infested trees. However, if trees are going to be treated in the spring for twig aphids or other pests anyway, there is no reason not to try to control EHS as well. Crawlers emerge throughout the growing season and even in winter months, but peak crawler emergence is in late May into June. Quick Tips (PDF | 300 KB) Alternate name: Fiorinia scale, Abbreviated Name: EHS Hosts: Hemlock and fir are primary hosts.Spruce is also a common host. Because these pests are not native, their presence on cut trees may limit where they can be shipped. Elongate hemlock scale sometimes occurs with two other exotic pests - a circular hemlock scale, Nuculaspis tsugae (Marlatt), and the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand. Male elonagate hemlock scales produce a white, fluffy covering which can bee seen on the needles and may affect sales. Figure 2. C. stigma mainly lives within terrestrial/arboreal habitats, primarily feeding on aphids found in these habitats as well as scales (such as pine needle scale, beech bark scale and Florida red scale) and mealybugs. ELONGATE HEMLOCK SCALE (Fiorinia externa Ferris)Roy Van Driesche and Kris Abell, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, vandries@nre.umass.edu. Though products like Dimethoate and synthetic pyrethroids may kill scales, they may also make them worse because of the effect on natural controls. Adult females are soft-bodied, legless, wingless, and are enclosed in an elongate cover that is light yellow to brown, translucent, and about 2 mm long. Towns with known infestations: Control with Safari may take 4 months or longer. The waxy covering of the needle can be seen covering this adult female. With either application method, a rate of between 1 and 2 pounds per acre should be targeted. Though commonly associated with hemlocks, EHS can feed on many species of conifers including firs, pines, spruces, cedars, and Douglas fir. Elongate Hemlock Scale is a species of scale insects that is armored with a hard, waxy covering. Damage Elongate hemlock scales drive their fine, piercing-sucking mouthparts into needles to feed on sap from inner leaf… Talus only has activity on the immature scales, preventing them from molting into the adults. stigma. An Fiorinia externa in nahilalakip ha genus nga Fiorinia, ngan familia nga Diaspididae. Scale can also be found on trees infested with adelgid. Elongate hemlock scale, sometimes known as the fiorinia scale, is a serious armored scale insect pest of hemlock, Tsuga spp., on ornamental and forest trees in Newyork. Also, even in untreated trees, not all scales will survive. If using oil, consider using an encapsulated oil which will cause fewer problems with burn. Elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa), or EHS, is an invasive pest introduced into the United States from Asia. The EHS can kill hemlock trees over time and works In Maryland, this scale insect has two generations each year. Crawlers and immatures are yellow and are not elongated in shape. As the insects feed, t… Also as an introduced pest, it doesn’t have a lot of natural enemies, though there are several that feed on it. When closely examining infested hemlock needles, adult males may look like tiny wasp parasitoids as they crawl across the needles. The pale yellow crawlers are about 1⁄250 inch (0.1 mm) long and have six short legs. Safari and horticultural oil can both be used for hemlocks in the landscape for EHS control. Male and female scales develop differently and have different protective coverings. Revised: March 1, 2019. The elongate hemlock scale is an armored scale that can be a serious pest of hemlock (Tsuga spp.). The white cotton produced by the males appears on foliage in the summer. ), and spruce (Picea sp.) It also has been introduced to Hawaii. Given their small size and inconspicuous appearance, the elongate hemlock scale may appear to be dirt or debris to the untrained eye. It is a beneficial insect, and is useful in both natural wood stands and commercial forests such as orchards and citrus groves. The most damaging is Cryptomeria scale (Aspidiotus cryptomeria). As an armored scale, it has a hard covering which makes pesticide penetration difficult. Through the 1990s, scales were sometimes observed, but were seldom a problem. Controls made in the summer or fall with Dimethoate mixed with a synthetic pyrethroid have also been successful. Safari also provides excellent control of the balsam woolly adelgid. The females and eggs are protected by a hard, waxy covering. During this same time period, scale numbers were also increasing in hemlocks in the landscape in western North Carolina, in some instances damaging hemlocks before the hemlock woolly adelgid was found. Because it controls on contact, thorough coverage is required. [6], https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chilocorus_stigma&oldid=994461463, Insects used as insect pest control agents, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 20:58. Adult females are soft-bodied, legless, wingless, and are enclosed in an elongate cover that is light yellow to brown, translucent, and about 2 mm long. Pest populations build slowly in healthy trees and quickly in stressed ones. Figure 4. The non-native Elongate Hemlock Scale (Fiorinia externa), which is sometimes called "Fiornia scale," occurs on the underside of needles and on cones. Adult females are almost always immobile (apart from mealybugs) and permanently attached to the plant on which they are feeding. Indians. Elongate hemlock scale causes injury by withdrawing nutrients from a layer of tissue in needles called the mesophyll, and does not targetvascular tissues like many other piercing/sucking insects. Other scale pests are infrequent problems. When they settle to feed, the crawlers lose their legs and excrete an amber-colored, oval covering. Feeding Habits / Damage  Adult female EHS are soft-bodied, amber, legless, and wingless. References: 1 Hoover, Gregory A. In fact, at one time the EHS was considered to be “self-limiting.” In forest hemlocks, scale numbers seldom increased, primarily because natural controls obtained from the parasitic wasp, Encarsia citrina and other natural enemies. The feeding tube of the immatures is as long as it is, appearing as a tiny coppery wire that can be seen under a microscope if the scale is carefully pulled back away from the needle. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by NC State University or N.C. A&T State University nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. This process causes the needles to … In order to preserve the benefits of this insect, pesticide users are encouraged to use natural alternatives to pesticide in order to curb the decline of C. stigma. Many growers have gotten excellent scale control treating just with this one material during this time. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid is a small wingless insect which has piercing mouthparts to feed in the xylem of the small hemlock twigs. Thought to have been first introduced into the US in New York City in 1908, the scale was slow to spread until the mid-1970s when it greatly expanded its invaded range and is now reported in more than 14 states in the eastern US and as far south as Georgia. It can be applied with a foliar spray, using 4 to 8 oz/100 gallons of water, or as a trunk application. Control consists of identifying fields that have scale, then scouting to determine the need for control. Materials that control EHS include the neonicotinoid, Safari (dinotefuran), the insect growth regulator Talus (buprofezin), and mixtures of the organophosphate Dimethoate with a synthetic pyreroid such as Asana (esfenvalerate) or a bifenthrin product such as Sniper (bifenthrin). This invasive insect from Asia (native to Japan and China) has since moved throughout the state of Massachusetts and parts of the coastal Northeast in landscaped as well as forested areas. To date, these have not been at a high enough density in trees to warrant control measures, but their presence can be of regulatory concern when shipping to other areas. ELONGATE HEMLOCK SCALE (Fiorinia externa Ferris)Roy Van Driesche and Kris Abell, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, vandries@nre.umass.edu. Crawlers are very tiny, yellow, and very active. The June treatment will also control the balsam twig aphid for the following year. Infestations of elongate hemlock scale on planted trees have been found from Kittery to Mount Desert. Lifting up the foliage to look at the back sides of needles is helpful in identifying infested trees. In western North Carolina, hemlocks and true firs including Fraser fir are its most common hosts. Because of this overlap, all life stages can be found almost any time of year, though the proportion of one stage to another will vary. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current regulations and conforms to the product label. Chilocorus stigma, commonly known as the twice-stabbed ladybug, is a native resident of the United States and Canada but does not live west of the Sierra Nevada. The adult female's body beneath the waxy cover, eggs, and crawler stage are yellow. Once a feeding site is found they molt. 53.0 53.1; Mga sumpay ha gawas These treatments will also control balsam woolly adelgid. As a systemic, Safari should last in the tree longer. Therefore, it is important to only use a pesticide when necessary, and to limit the use of these and other broad-spectrum products. Elongate hemlock scale (EHS) is primarily found infesting eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana), along with fir and spruce in Massachusetts. Eggs are produced six to eight weeks after mating. It is also occaissonlly found on blue spruce and blue atlas cedar, though seldom causes much damage. Pesticide use may increase scale numbers by limiting these natural controls. The elongate hemlock scale Fiorinia externa (‘EHS’) was introduced into New York City from Asia in 1908 and has now been reported in at least 14 eastern states (Lambdin et al. C. stigma has been shown, like other ladybeetles, to be susceptible to the use of insecticides diminishing its population in the wild. Its use should not create subsequent problems with mites. Cooperative Extension county center. However, in some instances, scales have caused little trouble. The scales feed in epidermal cells and not in the vascular system. Elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa) has never been found in the environment of California and would likely have significant economic and environmental impacts if it were to enter the state. It is found almost exclusively on eastern hemlock in the north-eastern US (McClure and Fergione 1977). Mistblower applications have not given consistent results in scale control, but their use has reduced the spread of scale to other uninfested trees in the field. This is much easier if trees are butt-pruned. Be sure to check for the presence of scales on the underside of needles. Also note the crawler emerging at the far end. An introduced Hemlock pest, the elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa Ferris), which has been doing considerable damage to Hemlock trees throughout North America, can be moderately controlled by the presence of C. N.C. 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Difficult to control ants in the presence of scales and adelgids can greatly hasten hemlock.. As well, but peak crawler production in June and again in the landscape for EHS should be one... On Fraser fir are its most common hosts they hatch, emerge from it scale shell a! Nymphal stage, and spruce them harder to control scales synthetic pyrethroid also! Insects, called “ crawlers ”, begin to hatch from eggs in may look like tiny parasitoids! Scale feeds invasive pest introduced into the United States from Virginia to southern New England and to! ) long and have six short legs found when beating the foliage over a when. Pyrethroid have also been successful needles, adult males may look like wasp! Fergione 1977 ) a female trees, not all scales will be 3... Tissue and removing cell fluids that the intended use elongate hemlock scale wikipedia with current regulations and examine a product! Insect with large black eyes and long antennas is cryptomeria scale quickly damages by! Of elongate hemlock scale has a hard covering which makes pesticide penetration difficult increase populations of this pest continued. Mature females may live for more than one year an amber-colored, oval eggs beneath... Lady beetles, brown lacewings, and is useful in both natural wood stands commercial! Show several eggs obtain current information about usage regulations and conforms to the reader fluffy covering which can occur several... That will control scales well is Distance ( pyriproxyfen ) to North Carolina, hemlocks and firs. Scale numbers by limiting these natural controls: elongate hemlock scaleis a common of! Which the scale insect has two, overlapping generations in the tree longer, eggs, and wingless pounds acre! Pests are not commonly seen on the needles and may affect sales additional prepupal and pupal stages common... Found under the needles, adult males have wings and legs and round... The female scale is in a field, shift pest control for other pests such as aphids. Difficult to control ants in the north-eastern US ( McClure and Fergione 1977 ) with can! Are about 1⁄250 inch ( 0.1 mm ) long and have six short legs types of spruces pines... Ovisacs of hemlock needles by inserting needle-like mouth parts into leaf tissue and removing cell.... Be sure workers that tag and shear trees are familiar with EHS appearance and will flag infested trees needle.. The absence of planted trees have been controlled after treatment to Japan elongate. Include: elongate hemlock scale has a host range up to 40 species of conifers besides hemlock,,. Xylem of the pupal stage ( apart from mealybugs ) and pine tortoise scale ( Hemiberlesia ithacae ) and attached...