He prohibited the practice of ‘sati’ and legalised the remarriages of widows. Akbar seemed to have possessed a very modern mind. It encouraged Akbar to introduce social reforms. Akbar introduced a number of social and educational reforms. His father, Humayun, the favourite son of the Mughal emperor Babar and his mother, Hamida Banu Begum, abandoned him and his little sister Bakhshi Banu to his uncles, when he was only one year old. Consent of both bride and bridegroom was necessary before marriage. The reform was necessitated by the fact that Akbar had made Persian compulsory for all the state officials and by his desire to create a common nationality. Child marriage was discouraged and female-infanticide was forbidden in his reign. His reforms have been discussed below: Abolition of Sati: ADVERTISEMENTS: Raja Ram Mohan Roy raised his voice against the Sati system. The removal of these impositions while gave economic relief to the people by bringing down the prices, free movement of goods produced indirectly a sense of oneness among the people. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Akbar also tried to stop the practice of Sati. Abul Fazl and a Brahmin Pandit were engaged to give lessons to Akbar’s grandsons. The question is from the static portions of GS paper I and is based on the significance of Mughal ruler Akbar and his contributions. Dear Student, The following points may help you: a. Akbar expanded his kingdom to a great extent . Social Reforms: Akbar had the welfare of his people always in his mind. Akbar also abolished jizya, the poll-tax which was imposed on the non-Muslims, for its imposition, to his mind, hindered emotional integration of his subjects into one united brotherhood. He discouraged child marriage and encouraged widow remarriage. Two social reforms of Akbar were. not permanent inhabitants of the area. In 1563 Akbar was hunting near Mathura. As a child Akbar (1542-1605) was deprived of the love and care of his parents and was brought up by nurses in the not too friendly homes of his uncles in Kandahar and Kabul. Although Akbar did not pass any formal decree against the practice of Suttee he thoroughly discouraged the practice. He discouraged child marriage. Later the lowest age for marriage was raised to 16 for the boys and 14 for the girls. KP CM stresses need of rudimentary reforms in social welfare department December 25, 2020 Chief Minister Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Mahmood Khan has stressed the need of rudimentary reforms in social welfare department to streamline its activities to improve its overall performance. (250 words), Reference:  Class XI NCERT – Medieval Indian history. Jala-ud-din Akbar did make an attempt to bring social reforms in the society by synthesising good things of all existing religions of that time but the masses were reluctant to follow this reform better known as din-i-illahi. The Jagirdars, Siqdars, Daroghas of all provinces were to record the number of the people, their trade, occupation, income, and also the residents, i.e. In 1582, an order was passed appointing a number of officers to regulate the transactions of sale and purchase of a certain number listed articles. The Mughal emperor Akbar promoted Hindus to the highest ranks of his government, ended a longstanding ban on the building of new Hindu temples, and ordered Muslims to respect cows. In the same year on his way to Kabul expedition Akbar passed an order from Sirhind that a census of population should be taken. Conclude with importance of such rulers and well thought social reforms in the past. The tax was not a fixed one. Social Reforms of Akbar Despite his multifarious activities Akbar found time to undertake several social reform measures for wedding out the evils of both the Muslim and non-Muslim societies. into Persian. A token marriage tax at varying rates was realized. Raja Ram Mohan Roy (22 May 1772 – 27 September 1833) was one of the founders of the Brahmo Sabha, the precursor of the Brahmo Samaj, a social-religious reform movement in the Indian subcontinent.He was given the title of Raja by Akbar II, the Mughal emperor.His influence was apparent in the fields of politics, public administration, education and religion. Akbar took special care for the education of his sons. Akbar is called great because of the great social and religious reforms he introduced in the medieval… Social Reforms. (2) The next reform was the abolition of Jizya which was a tax on the “conscientious faith of any man.” This measure went a long way in removing the deep-rooted bitterness in the minds of the Hindus against the Muslim rulers. In 1562 Akbar prohibited the age-long custom of enslaving the prisoners of war, selling their wives and children, etc. Despite his multifarious activities Akbar found time to undertake several social reform measures for wedding out the evils of both the Muslim and non-Muslim societies. Public hospitals were also established. Besides the Madrasahs and educational institutions set up by Akbar and the nobles, there were many private schools. He gave up hunting on Jumma Days (Fridays). Excessive drinking, disorderly behavior after drinking or to booze were made punishable. Akbar the Great (Oct. 15, 1542–Oct. Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon. Present brief background of Akbar’s reign. Akbar preferred to lose annually a sum of Rupees one crore in order to win over the goodwill of the Hindus. Akbar launched massive military campaigns in Gujarat were followed by campaigns in the east in Bihar, Bengal and Orissa. … Critically examine. He created a powerful military system and instituted effective political and social reforms. Jajman, a cousin of Raja Bhagawan Das died prematurely. Sayyid Khan Chagtai was Danial’s tutor. One of the most memorable reforming steps taken by Akbar was against the inhuman practice of Suttee. Social Reforms of Akbar Despite his multifarious activities Akbar found time to undertake several social reform measures for wedding out the evils of both the Muslim and non-Muslim societies. The crux of Akbar's religious beliefs was his faith in monotheism or Tauhid-i-Ilahi. Social and economic reforms of Akbar Share with your friends. Akbar is called great because of the great social and religious reforms he introduced in the medieval times although he faced great resistance to many of them. Shaharzad Akbar, Senior Advisor to President for High Councils (former) Hameed Akbar, Director General of Policy and Planning, Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs, Martyrs and Disabled Mohammad Ajmal Amirzad, Systems Development Specialist, ICT Directorate, Ministry of Finance There was considerable opposition to the abolition of this tax from an influential section of the court on both religious and financial grounds. It is difficult, in absence of detailed evidence, the extent to which this order for census was actually executed in those days when there was lack of proper communication, conveyance etc. Widow-marriage was also encouraged. Social reforms: Akbar’s interest in the Hindu Society led to some awakening regarding the evils of the Sati practice etc. To encourage this, charities were instituted in the Palace. Akbar had created a powerful army and instituted effective political and social reforms. Akbar: Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy: Part II (3) The Third Phase (1581-1605): Akbar's own religious ideas and beliefs crystallized slowly during the last phase. In order to preserve the unity of his empire, Akbar adopted programs that won the loyalty of the non-Muslim populations of his realm. The good inhabitants were to be classified from the bad. This pernicious custom followed during centuries past was abolished saving many innocent unfortunate people from being reduced to slavery. In another case Akbar intervened to persuade the young widow of Birbhadra of Panna not to immolate herself in her husband’s pyre. The names of the purchasers of wine had to be recorded in the shop at the time buying wine. His principle of religious toleration did not, however, make him blind to certain evils in the Hindu society. Above Village Hyper Market, Chandralyout Main Road, Female education was also encouraged. Explain how these social reforms helped him build better society and gain legitimacy from the Indian masses. He did not encourage child marriages. Badaoni deplored Akbar’s certain orders by observing that he “promulgated some of his new-fangled decrees. Salima Sultana was a poet of repute in Persian and Maham Anaga, Akbar’s chief nurse was also an educated lady. XVII. Akbar was known for rewarding talent, loyalty, and intellect, regardless of ethnic background or religious practice. In the same year (1582) a very important proclamation was made liberating all the slaves in the empire. As a further safeguard against abuses, Akbar reorganized the existing network of newswriters, whose duty it was to send regular … In 1564, Jaziya, a tax which was imposed on non-Muslims, was also abolished. Mirza Abdur Rahim and Qutb-ud-din Khan, both known for their liberal outlook, were amongst the tutors of Salim. Also, why was Akbar so great? Small birds and creeping animals were prohibited to be killed. His principle of religious toleration did not, however, make him blind to certain evils in the Hindu society. Akbar recognized the evil of gambling but it was so wide spread that he found it impossible to suppress the evil. ADVERTISEMENTS: Raja Ram Mohan Roy was a great social reformer. Akbar found that the pilgrim tax was morally wrong both because it was imposed on people who came “in search of the light of God” and because it was not uniform but arbitrary, variable according to the whim of the collector of the tax. Comment. to burn herself in the funeral pyre otter dead husband but her step son Udai Singh and other relations almost forced her to agree to become a Suttee. Monserrate taught Murad the Christian doctrines. He even remarked “It is not right that a man should make his stomach the grave of animals”. Economic and Social Developments under the Mughals *Trade and Industry* == *Urban Life* == *Rural Conditions* == *Health and Medical Facilities* == *Social Customs* == *The Position of the Hindus* [[223]] IT WAS the normal policy of the Timurid rulers, both in their original Central Asian homelands and in India, to encourage trade. Orders prohibiting marriage before the age of 12 and between cousins though permissible under Muslim law were passed by Akbar. In your opinion, what solutions are desirable to help crush the caste-based exploitation in India? Answer: Akbar introduced a number of sociai reforms to rid Indian society from some cruel practices like: He abolished the sati pratha and legalized remarriage of widows. Topic:  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues. Akbar set up a state bank from which loans might be taken by the gamblers and every gambling den was made liable to pay a fixed charge. Mention any two important social reforms introduced by Akbar? Enlist various social reforms taken by him – prohibited slavery, allowed Widow remarriage, prostitution was regulated, and immoral trafficking of women brought under control, Sati of Hindu women was prohibited etc. The social measures that Akbar had introduced give us an impression of a new world or modernism. Akbar recognized the social evils of intoxicants, drinks or otherwise, but he also realized that it would be impossible to enforce total prohibition and he made a compromise. He noticed that a tax was being realized from the people who had gathered there on pilgrimage. Further, Akbar made a strict rule that widows of tender age who had not shared … Gambling brought ruin to families, resulted in strife, yet it was almost universal. Such was Akbar’s fervor for education that Abul Fazl wrote in appreciation that “All civilized nations have schools for education of youths, but Hindustan is particularly famous for its seminaries. Sialkot was a famous seat of learning during his time. Today, Insights is synonymous with UPSC civil services exam preparation. Shaikh Faizi and Sharif Khan were the teachers of Murad. This had the effect of stopping random hanging or killing of accused persons under orders of the governors. In this video you will learn about the administrative policies followed by Akbar and the officials in his kingdom. Akbar's reign significantly influenced the course of Indian history. He modernized Indian society in many ways. It has to be noted that Akbar’s emphasis on secular studies was not liked by orthodox school of thought but there was no intention on Akbar’s part to destroy Arabic literature. Sarais were opened throughout the imperial territories. Akbar the great was a reformist emperor. 27, 1605) was a 16th-century Mughal (Indian) emperor famed for his religious tolerance, empire-building, and patronage of the arts. Akbar was against child marriage which was prevalent both among the Hindus and the Muslims. Widow re-marriage was encouraged. The economic, social, and cultural conditions during the first half of the seventeenth century were flourishing like anything. Akbar’s reforms required a centralized financial system, and, thus, by the side of each provincial governor (sūbadār, later called nawab) was placed a civil administrator (dīwān, or divan) who supervised revenue collection, prepared accounts, and reported directly to the emperor. On inquiry Akbar was told that it had been the custom of every Muslims ruler to realize pilgrim tax from the Hindus at every place of Hindu pilgrimage. Insights has redefined the way preparation is done in UPSC civil service exam, Nanda Ashirwad Complex, 3rd Floor, From 1581 several reform measures were undertaken in quick succession. The major social reform introduced by Akbar was the abolition of the Pilgrimage Tax for Hindus in 1563 as well as the Jazia tax imposed on the Hindu subjects. As the news reached Akbar he hurriedly appeared in the scene and taking the risk of being misunderstood by his Rajput relations intervened and got those who were forcing the widow to become a Suttee, arrested (Akbarnama). Akbar was not in favor of second marriage (having two wives at the same time) unless the first wife was barren. But Akbar stuck to his order. Explain in what way Akbar was a great social reformer and how these social reforms helped him to get the legitimacy from the Indian masses. For the first time under him Hindu and Muslim children sat side by side in the same educational institutions. He stopped sati (the burning of a widow), unless she herself, of her own free will, determinedly desired it. 1. In addition to compiling an … He abolished the pilgrim tax all throughout his empire. In the funeral pyre of the deceased husband, his wife was mercilessly thrown if she did not […] The minimum age for the marriage of girls was raised to 14 years, while the age of the marriage of boys was raised to 16 years. He had taken several measures to improve the general condition of his subjects. His widow was unwilling to become a Suttee, i.e. Akbar was a great social reformer and these social reforms helped him to get the legitimacy from the Indian masses. To meet the problem of beggary Akbar set up dormitories called Khairpura for the Muslim beggars, Dharampura for the Hindu beggars and Jogipura for Jogis where free food was served to them at the cost of the state. Share 0. There is no name in mediaeval history more renowned in India to the present day than that of Todar Mal, and the reason is that nothing in Akbar’s reforms more nearly touched the welfare of the people than the great financier’s reconstruction of the revenue system. 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Ralph Fitch (a British traveler) had written about Patna (Bihar) as, “Here the women bedecked with silver and copper that it is strange to see, they use no shoes by reason of the rings of silver and copper they wear on their toes." During his rule, the Mughal Empire tripled in size and wealth. He permitted wine-taking by only those whom doctors would certify it to be necessary. The killing of animals on the first day of the week was strictly prohibited, because the day is sacred to the Sun, and during the eighteen days of the month of Fawardin, the whole month of Aban (the month in which his Majesty was born) and on sacred days to please the Hindus”. A number of Madrasahs flourished in Agra and that of Gujarat was especially famous. Mughal Emperor Akbar abolished all inland customs and taxes on trades and professions. Consent of the parents of the boy and the girl to be married and also their mutual consent were made obligatory before marriage was performed. He reformed and strengthened his central administration and also centralized his financial system and reorganized tax-collection processes. Enlist various social reforms taken by him – prohibited slavery, allowed Widow remarriage, prostitution was regulated, and immoral trafficking of women brought under control, Sati of Hindu women was prohibited etc. ALL IN ONE Social Reforms of Akbar Despite his multifarious activities Akbar found time to undertake several social reform measures for wedding out the evils of both the Muslim and non-Muslim societies. A big college was founded at Fathepur on the hill, the like of which few travelers can name”. Click to see full answer. Nur Jahan (Mehr-un-nisa, Nur Mahal) – Mughal Empress, Dara Shikoh’s place in the Cultural Life of India, Information on Dara Shikoh (Eldest son of Shah Jahan), Brief History of Muhammad Sultan (Mughal Prince), 6 Reasons Why the Mughal Empire Declined in India, Downfall and Decline of the Mughal Empire, Early Life of Babur (Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur), Brief History of Mughal Prince Shah Shuja (brother of Aurangzeb), Muhammad Azam Shah (Mughal Prince) – Son of Aurangzeb, Muhammad Shah | Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad Shah (Mughal Emperor). In 1563, the Pilgrim Tax, which was a great burden on the Hindus, was abolished. This was abolished by Akbar in 1563 and all citizens could travel freely across the empire to visit places of worship. Like many of the sufis, Akbar believed that communion with God… A decree was passed by him recommending that his subjects should refrain from eating meat on the day of his accession as thanks-giving to Almighty in order that the year may pass in prosperity. To start with explain the fact that in addition to proclaiming a state based on universal peace and justice, Akbar took steps to create a better understanding of different religions among the subjects; he set up a translation bureau to translate works in Sanskrit, Arabic, Greek, etc. His principle of religious toleration did not, however, make him blind to certain evils in the Hindu society. Explain how these social reforms helped him build better society and gain legitimacy from the Indian masses. It was determined arbitrarily according to rank and wealth of the pilgrim. Akbar introduced a number of social reforms to rid Indian society from some cruel practices like: Akbar issued orders to the kotwals to check the forcible practice of Sati or the burning of a widow on the funeral pyre of her husband. However, the women who committed Sati of … Comment. People were induced to give something to charity once a week or a month or a year. Attiguppe , Bengaluru - 560040. The Imperial Library in fact, contained a great many works in Arabic. This is a product of Mexus Education Pvt. Akbar not only widened the curriculum of studies but also threw open the gates of educational institutions which had hitherto before been exclusively reserved for the Muslims. Would you like to get the full Thesis from Shodh ganga along with citation details? Akbar had no idea of the tax that was realized from pilgrims from all places of Hindu pilgrimage. Conclusion: Akbar was a great social reformer and these social reforms helped him to get the legitimacy from the Indian masses. The governors of the provinces were ordered not to inflict capital punishment without Akbar’s confirmation. It was customary for Muslim nobility to send their daughters to schools. Akbar's social reforms and treatment of women: Akbars attempts at social reforms especially concerning women showed how advanced he was-Encouraged widow remarriage (for both Muslims and Hindus)-Discouraged child marriages-Legally prohibited sati (very adamant about this) Has economic progress helped realize Dalit empowerment? Although in his initial days as emperor he was known to be a conqueror and ruthless warrior but as the days went by he matured and turned into a benevolent emperor. Princess Gul Badan wrote the famous Humayun-Nama as a contribution to Abul Fazl’s Akbarnama. Stop the practice of Sati course of Indian history a tax was being from. And social reforms strife, yet it was determined arbitrarily according to rank and wealth the and. Contribution to abul Fazl and a Brahmin Pandit were engaged to give something to charity once week. A new world or modernism regarding the evils of the provinces were ordered not to inflict capital punishment without ’... 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And instituted effective political and social reforms: Akbar had no idea of the governors the... Reforms introduced by Akbar prohibited to be killed noticed that a census of population be! Sati system of social and economic reforms of Akbar Share with your friends an impression a.